Contents

Allegro Hand Controller Basis

In the last tutorial, we created a Visual Studio (VS) project with three files:

myAHController.cpp
myAHController.h
myAHControllerCmd.h

Goals:

  1. Create sinusoidal fashion hand motion to run at the start of AHAS.

Hand and Joint Initialization

myAHController.cpp

In developing out controller for the Allegro Hand, lets start by initializing our hand and all of its devices. For now, we will focus on the function init(). The code below will first initialize the hand, then call a secondary function, _arrangeJointDevices(), to initialize all 16 of the motors and encoders for the hand. The initialize function will also make sure all arrays to store joint positions, velocities and torques are the length of the number of degrees of freedom (DOF) and set to zero (0) to start. The locations of the four (4) fingertips (x,y,z) are also set to zero when initialized.

Please, be careful when you copy and paste the following code.
There are skipped parts in the code.
You cannot copy and paste all at once.

...
 
myAHController::myAHController(rDC rdc) 
:rControlAlgorithmEx(rdc)
, _jdof(0)                              // everything is NULL to start
, _hand(NULL)
, _is_left_hand(false)
, _demo_mode(true)		  // will be used when
, _demo_start_time(0)	          // we make our own motion
{
}
 
...
 
void myAHController::init(int mode)
{
 
	// this property is read from the myAHController XDL file
	// to determine if the hand we are using will be the right or the left
	const TCHAR* prop = NULL;
	prop = getProperty(_T("whichHand"));
	// if using a right hand
	if (prop && _tcsicmp(prop, _T("right")) == 0)
	{
		_is_left_hand = false;		        // used to tell left from right
		_hand = bhCreateRightHand();	// create the right hand
	}
	// if using a left hand
	else
	{
		_is_left_hand = true;
		_hand = bhCreateLeftHand();	// create the left hand
	}
	assert(_hand);				// if hand was not created, abort
	_hand->SetTimeInterval(0.003);	// control period is set (333Hz)
 
	_jdof = JDOF;				// 16 DOF
 
	_arrangeJointDevices();		// finds all hand motors and encoders
 
	_q.resize(_jdof);			        // array (16) holds current joint positions
	_qdot.resize(_jdof);			// array (16) holds current joint velocities	
	_torque.resize(_jdof);			// array (16) holds current joint torques
 
	_q.zero();				        // all positions, vel and torque set to zero
	_qdot.zero();
	_torque.zero();
 
	_demo_q_des.resize(_jdof);		// desired joint positions
	_demo_q_des.zero();			// used to create motion sequences
 
	memset(_x, 0, sizeof(_x[0])*4);	// sets x, y and z position to (0,0,0)
	memset(_y, 0, sizeof(_y[0])*4);	// for all four fingers
	memset(_z, 0, sizeof(_z[0])*4);
 
}
 
...

As the function _arrangeJointDevices() is called during initialization, we must also fill in this function to find all of the motor and encoder devices on the hand. The names used to find these devices can be found in the Allegro Hand AML model file. The motors are stored and accessed via the _motor[] array and the encoders are stored and accessed via the _enc[] array.

...
 
void myAHController::_arrangeJointDevices()
{
	// _jdof is 16.
	for (int i=0; i<_jdof; i++)
	{
		// oversited array intialized for storing the device name string
		TCHAR devname[32];
 
		// find all 16 motors on hand (motor1, motor2, ..., motor16)
		_stprintf(devname, _T("motor%d"), i + 1);	// device name built and stored
		_motor[i] = findDevice(devname);		// device located
 
		// find all 16 encoders on hand (enc1, enc2, ..., enc16)
		_stprintf(devname, _T("enc%d"), i + 1);
		_enc[i] = findDevice(devname);
	}
 
}
 
...

Lastly, just in case a hand already exist when we try to make a controller, lets add a piece of code that will delete any hand that already exists before creating a new one.

...
 
myAHController::~myAHController()
{
	if (_hand)		// if there is already a hand,
		delete _hand;	// delete it before creating a new one
}
 
...

myAHController.h

We must now add all of the member variables and functions accessed to the class defined in the header file myAHController.h.

#ifndef __MY_AH_CONTROLLER_H__
#define __MY_AH_CONTROLLER_H__
 
#include <list>
#include "rControlAlgorithm/rControlAlgorithm.h"
#include "BHand/BHand.h"
 
#define JDOF	16
 
// myAHController inherited from algorithm interface class
class REXPORT myAHController : public rControlAlgorithmEx
{
public:
	myAHController(rDC rdc);
	~myAHController();
 
	virtual void init(int mode = 0);
	virtual void update(const rTime& t);
	virtual int  command(const short& cmd, const int& arg = 0);
 
private:
	virtual void _readDevices();
	virtual void _writeDevices();
 
	virtual void _compute(const rTime& t);
 
	void _arrangeJointDevices();
 
 
private:
 
	// algorithm variables go here
	rTime		_cur_time;	   // current time in controller
 
	BHand*		_hand;		   // Allegro Hand
	bool		_is_left_hand;	   // bool, left?
 
	rID		_motor[16];	   // motor array
	rID		_enc[16];	   // encoder array
 
	dVector		_q;		   // joint current position
	dVector		_qdot;		   // joint current velocity
	dVector		_torque;	   // joint torque
 
	int		_jdof;		   // degrees of freedom
 
	double		_x[4];		   // location of each (4) fingertips
	double		_y[4];		   // in x, y, and z
	double		_z[4];
 
	int		_demo_mode;	   // bool, used later as flag to envoke user control
	rTime		_demo_start_time;  // time at which the demo mode starts
	dVector		_demo_q_des;	   // desired position for position controller
 
};
 
#endif

Updating the Controller

Now that we have initialized all the joint devices, we can employ a simple joint controller. This joint controller employs PID control and is part of the BHand library.

myAHController.cpp

Before actually writing the joint commands, we must first set up the controller to read the joint positions for the encoder devices and write joint torque to the motor devices.

...
 
void myAHController::_readDevices()
{
	// all 16 encoder pos. values are read and stored in _q[]
	float val;
	for (int i=0; i<JDOF; i++)
	{
		if (_enc[i] != INVALID_RID)
		{
			readDeviceValue(_enc[i], &val, 4);
			_q[i] = (float)val;
		}
	}
}
 
void myAHController::_writeDevices()
{
	// all 16 motor _torque[] values are written to the motor device
	float val;
	for (int i=0; i<JDOF; i++)
	{
		val = (float)_torque[i];
		if (_motor[i] != INVALID_RID)
		{
			writeDeviceValue(_motor[i], &val, 4);
		}
	}
}
 
...

To cause these updates to happen periodically, we must update the controller each iteration to step through time.

Each time the controller is updated, it automatically calls the following functions in order:

  1. _readDevices()
  2. _estimate()
  3. _reflect()
  4. _compute()
  5. _writeDevices()
...
 
void myAHController::update(const rTime& t)
{
	_cur_time = t;			// controller is updated every control period
	rControlAlgorithm::update(t);
}
 
...

Now compile and run the code.

Joint Position Control

We will now employ a simple algorithm to change the joint position with time in a sinusoidal fashion. This will be done using the BHand function SetJointDesiredPosition(double* q).

...
 
void myAHController::_compute(const double& t)
{
	if (_hand)
	{
		_hand->SetJointPosition(_q.array);			// joint positions send to Bhand
 
		if (true)
		{
			_hand->SetMotionType(eMotionType_JOINT_PD);     // PID gains and motion control set
 
			static float sin_speed = 0.3;
			static float sin_amp = 10;
 
			// this is the home position for the right hand
			static double q_home_left[NOF][NOJ] = {
				{  0*DEG2RAD,	-10*DEG2RAD,	45*DEG2RAD,	45*DEG2RAD},
				{  0*DEG2RAD,	-10*DEG2RAD,	45*DEG2RAD,	45*DEG2RAD},
				{ -5*DEG2RAD,	 -5*DEG2RAD,	50*DEG2RAD,	45*DEG2RAD},
				{ 50*DEG2RAD,	 25*DEG2RAD,	15*DEG2RAD,	45*DEG2RAD}
			};
 
			// this is the home position for the left hand
			static double q_home_right[NOF][NOJ] = {
				{  0*DEG2RAD,	-10*DEG2RAD,	45*DEG2RAD,	45*DEG2RAD},
				{  0*DEG2RAD,	-10*DEG2RAD,	45*DEG2RAD,	45*DEG2RAD},
				{  5*DEG2RAD,	 -5*DEG2RAD,	50*DEG2RAD,	45*DEG2RAD},
				{ 50*DEG2RAD,	 25*DEG2RAD,	15*DEG2RAD,	45*DEG2RAD}
			};
 
 
			_demo_q_des.zero();
 
			if (_is_left_hand)
			{
				double delQ = sin_amp*DEGREE*sin(2.0*M_PI*sin_speed*(_cur_time-_demo_start_time));
				for (int i=0; i<NOF; i++)		// for fingers 1 to 4
					for (int j=0; j<NOJ; j++)	// for joints 1 to 4
					{
						_demo_q_des[i*NOF+j] = q_home_left[i][j] + delQ;
					}
			}
			else
			{
				double delQ = sin_amp*DEGREE*sin(2.0*M_PI*sin_speed*(_cur_time-_demo_start_time));
				for (int i=0; i<NOF; i++) // 
					for (int j=0; j<NOJ; j++)
					{
						_demo_q_des[i*NOJ+j] = q_home_right[i][j] + delQ;
					}
			}
 
			// joint position is set using torque PID control
			_hand->SetJointDesiredPosition(_demo_q_des.array);
 
		}
 
		// controller is updated in BHand
		// current finger tip position, and torque are updated from BHand
		_hand->UpdateControl(t);
		_hand->GetFKResult(_x, _y, _z);
		_hand->GetJointTorque(_torque.array);
	}
}
 
...

Compile once again and run AHAS from the shortcut on your Desktop. You should now see every joint moving in a sinusoidal fashion.
You can see the result in this File:Allegro tutorial 2 result.zip.
If you can't see the same result as above, download this File:AllegroHandAppStudio bhand patch.zip, unzip and paste bin, lib and include folders into
C:\Program Files (x86)\SimLab\Allegro Hand Application Studio folder.

In the next tutorial, we will demonstrate how easy it is to try out this controller on your actual Allegro Hand.

3. Interfacing with the Actual Allegro Hand




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It offers accurate tax results, and it gives you support options should you receive an audit by the IRS. https://turb...own-load.com gives you the tools you need to make complex tax issues a simple and straightforward process, https://ttur...download.com and you won’t have to worry about making simple calculation mistakes when completing your return. Download the software from . https://turb...-license.com TurboTax is pretty useful, as it makes the complicated process easy. When you make a purchase of the software you to activate the program.
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Anonymous user #2

109 days ago
Score 0+
You need to fill up the online registration form completely. https://turb...ense-tax.com Registration of the TT program makes you eligible for the customer service and technical support from time to time. https://ttur...elicense.com Enter your license code in the pop up window.Select your operating system, and select Get Download.Download your software and install. Sign in to a Disney+ account. Please enter your email and password login details to start streaming movies and TV series from Disney+ Streaming. https://d-di...ginstart.com Click on the link for more information.Visit and enter 8 digit disney plus code you see on your tv screen.
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Anonymous user #2

109 days ago
Score 0+
To get started with turbotax https://tt-urrb0.code-tax.com in your system. Follow the steps below for registering your InstallturboTax.com software.TurboTax is tax preparation software for the United States and Canadian tax returns. https://1ins...-license.com TurboTax offers four ways to file your taxes, including a free option for simple tax situations at TurboTax is pricey, but it has a good user experience with the option to upgrade for expert help. https://turbo0.taxcod.com Self-employed filers who use QuickBooks will find TurboTax especially valuable.TurboTax is a market leader in its product segment, competing many tax planning software in the whole world. https://turb...-license.com Visit Also, registration makes worthy of special offers, product updates, and advance purchases.
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Anonymous user #2

109 days ago
Score 0+
https://kanon-c0m.cancomij.com  Intuit TurboTax is our best overall pick for small business online tax software because of its intuitive interface, extensive deduction and credit database, and startup-focused support.  https://ij-s...cancomij.com  It's an easy and comprehensive solution for small businesses of every size and type, despite costing more than other tax software programs.   https://turb...download.com Follow the on-screen prompts on to complete the process. Microsoft 365 is the set of all Office apps with some additional features. Go to  https://365setup.canscom.com/  to get all the MS office 365 apps on your devices like Windows, Mac, and smartphones. 
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Anonymous user #2

109 days ago
Score 0+
TurboTax needs no introduction https://catu...se-turbo.com as we are the best selling software across Canada because we have every situation covered; assisting our customers’ personal taxation needs. https://i-in...xs-turbo.com From a simple tax return to one that has many variables, TurboTax has a solution. You may choose to do your own tax return or help family and friends as well. It is one of the top software that allows you to control your income tax returns. https://tturbo.tax-license.com is really a tax free preparation software that coaches you to process and file your earnings in the appropriate method.Canon ij printer is a complete solution for multiple tasks and users can easily set up a from and get a better experience. https://cano...ijcancom.com Then you will see the Wireless LAN setup option. is a website to download Canon printer latest and updated drivers for Canon Printer direct download link.Enter the 8-digit code you see on your TV.Click the Continue button.
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Anonymous user #2

109 days ago
Score 0+
To get started with ij.start canon setup, you can select wireless, wired,  https://ij-star.ijcancom.com  or USB connection method. Canon printer app is available for cableless for smartphones.Sign in to your TurboTax account at  using the same login you used when you made your purchase. https://1tur...licenses.com   If you're not already on the Downloads tab, select it.TurboTax Live Federal & State, plus E-file is an online-only product that lets you get help and guidance from a tax expert when preparing your taxes.  https://turb...licenses.com  With software you’ll reap the benefits of an interface that’s so easy to use that it actually guides you step by step through the entire filing process,  https://en-t...licenses.com  and you’ll enjoy a trio of guarantees that take all of the risk out of doing your own taxes in the most cost-effective way possible.
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Anonymous user #2

109 days ago
Score 0+
install turbotax with license code.turbotax-canada. installturbotax.com. More. https://turb...licenses.com Installturbotax.com The registration process of TurboTax software involves some time. You need to fill up the online registration form completely. https://turb01.taxscodes.com Registration of the TT program makes you eligible for the customer service and technical support from time to time.TurboTax is a market leader in its product segment, competing many tax planning software in the whole world. https://inst...axscodes.com Visit and enter the code of 16 digit to get started with it.TurboTax File Service is for the average American with simple tax matters. https://turb...axscodes.com You need to have TurboTax installed at Installturbotax.com when you purchase the software. The machine sensors will be active, sense the impression on the printed sheet, and cut it out accordingly. https://tturb0.taxscodes.com Turbotax.ca/download Steps to download and install with license code.
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Anonymous user #2

109 days ago
Score 0+
Cricut.com/setup machines help you design and create personalized designs, from stickers to cards and t-shirts. https://cricricutcomsetup.com Basically, it’s a cutting machine that you can use for crafts & DIY projects.First, switch on the printer and Wi-Fi router. Then, tap and hold the Wi-Fi button until the Wi-Fi lamp begins to blink. https://iijstartcanon.com Now, press the “On” button on the printer and again press the Wi-Fi button and wait until the network lamp flashes.is a platform for getting the canon printer driver. It started in 1941 with a man named Bill Attention and https://disn...combegin.com became one of the largest family entertainment franchises in history.Not only does TurboTax guarantee you the maximum refund you’re eligible for, https://en-t...olicense.com but it also guarantees you complete accuracy in your return and offers a money back guarantee if you’re not completely satisfied with the product.
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Anonymous user #2

109 days ago
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Canon printer app is available for cableless ij start canon setup for smartphones. https://ijstart.mefines.com For a hassle free setup process on Canon printer to Windows (or mac), follow the below-mentioned instructions. https://canonij.mefines.com Install setup to your device wirelessly. Follow the steps below to connect the ij start canon setup to any device wirelessly. https://ijsetup.mefines.com Turn on the printer and click on the setup or settings button, which is on the printer's control panel. Then you will see the Wireless LAN setup option. https://setu....mefines.com is a website to download Canon printer latest and updated drivers for Canon Printer direct download link.Enter the 8-digit code you see on your TV.Click the Continue button.
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Anonymous user #2

109 days ago
Score 0+
If you don’t see your product, use account recovery to find out if you have other usernames associated with your email. https://turb...-license.com TurboTax is well-known among the tax-paying class for its benefits in filing annual tax returns and tax preparation. https://exp-cricut.com/setup Cricut machines can even cut leather and wood! For your new Cricut, you will also need to have an online account so you can use Cricut’s Design Studio which is the operating software for Cricut machines. machines help you design and create personalized designs, from stickers to cards and t-shirts.Setting up canon printer and installing it on your computer/laptop and mac is not an https://ijj.radhgcanij.com easy task if you don't have proper instrctions that help you install the driver of canon printer.
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Anonymous user #2

109 days ago
Score 0+
Canon Printer Software for printing and scanning any type https://ijcan.canscom.com of documents is the best decision one can make and invest in a printing device. https://turb...olicense.com This program makes the arduous process so simple that one can effortlessly file their taxes from the comfort of their own home.Canon Printer Setup delivers amazing printing quality. Download from and setup on your device. https://ij.starjcan.com Canon printers are all in one printer that facilitates print, copy and scan. The canon printers are designed for personal as well as business use.
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Anonymous user #2

109 days ago
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It’s a printer device and with the help of this, you can create beautiful images or designs on your computer and then send it to the machine. https://kri-cricut.com/setup With Cricut Machine, you do not need to print designing, in which whatever material you want, Cricut machine cuts it. Apart from this, Cricut Explore can also cut air paper, faux https://rad-cricut.com/setup leather, kraft foam, sticker paper, vinyl, fabric with ease. Cricut Design Space PC windows is very easy to use. Toolbar on left of the screen shows options for current screen. https://god-cricut.com/setup Toolbar on right of screen has option of changing view.
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Anonymous user #2

109 days ago
Score 0+
https://sh-cricut.com/setup There is also a preset tab on toolbar for common features such as the size color of the shape, type of cut.Download Canon Printer Driver - ij.start.canon https://ijstar8.kricanij.com Go to website using a web. Follow the steps given below for downloading your Canon printer drivers and update them visiting Power ON your Mac computer. https://statij.radhcanij.com Canon IJ setup is the official website for downloading Canon Inkjet printer drivers.
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Anonymous user #2

109 days ago
Score 0+
When you sign in to your account, you’ll discover the 8-digit number on the final page. https://plus-disneyplus.com Disney+ is the home for your favorite movies and TV shows from Disney, Pixar, Marvel, Star Wars, and National Geographic. https://plus...us.com/begin is one of the most popular streaming services in the world right now. With the entire catalogue of Disney classics available, plus new favorites like Hamilton and exclusives like Muppets Now, https://plus...lusbegin.com it’s not hard to see why.But when it comes to technology, sometimes you need a little help to get going. One of the issues people are seeing now is a message prompt telling them to go to https://disney.plusbegin.plus or Here is what to do if you see that message on your screen. Disney Plus is one of the most popular streaming services in the world. You can watch Disney plus on any iPhone, android, windows or other device also. https://disn...om-begin.com All you need is to visit and create your disney plus account and choose your subscription plan. Stream your favourite tv shows, movies and much more anytime with the amazing services of disneyplus.
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Anonymous user #2

109 days ago
Score 0+
Download Canon Printer Driver - https://ijcanij.starjcan.com Go to website using a web. Follow the steps given below for downloading your Canon printer drivers and update them visiting Power ON your Mac computer. https://ijstarcan.starjcan.com Canon IJ setup is the official website for downloading Canon Inkjet printer drivers. Ensure that you have properly set up the Canon printer after unboxing it. https://ijstarcan.kricanij.com The ink cartridges should be properly installed. The wifi connection should be established beforehand to undertake the download and installation process without any hindrance. https://cansetup.kricanij.com The computer, printer, and wi-fi router should be in close.If you have bought the Printer, then you have taken one step ahead of others. https://ij1ij.radhcanij.com/ If you want to go one more step ahead to have an easy life, then go to as it is a kind of the first requirement that needs to be accomplished.
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Anonymous user #2

109 days ago
Score 0+
Go to https://365setup.kricanij.com to get all the MS office 365 apps on your devices like Windows, Mac, and smartphones.Ij Start Canon will redirect you to Canon manuals, press Set up the tab. https://ijst...adhcanij.com Get to know about how to set up Canon your printer or scanner. Click on the link https://dinseey.plusbegin.plus for more information. Download and/or Open the Disney Plus App on your device. Go to using a web browser on a desktop or smartphone.
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Anonymous user #2

109 days ago
Score 0+
Canva is an online graphic design tool built for beginners for both business and personal use. https://canva.radhcanij.com Canva’s mission is to “empower everyone in the world to design anything and publish anywhere.” And they live up to it—letting you easily create shareable images from your desktop or from the app.is one of the most popular streaming services in the world right now. https://disn...om-begin.com With the entire catalogue of Disney classics available, plus new favorites like Hamilton and exclusives like Muppets Now, it’s not hard to see why.But when it comes to technology, sometimes you need a little help to get going. https://diz-...om-begin.com One of the issues people are seeing now is a message prompt telling them to go to DisneyPlus.com/Begin or Here is what to do if you see that message on your screen.
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Anonymous user #2

109 days ago
Score 0+
Some Cricut machines can even cut leather and wood! For your new Cricut, https://c-cr...t.com/setup/ you will also need to have an online account so you can use Cricut’s Design Studio which is the operating software for Cricut machines.Open on your web browser to set up and start with your Cricut machine. https://kris...t.com/setup/ Cricut machine lets you manage your craft projects easily with much more fun. Being an art lover, you must have wanted to transform your creative imaginations into reality. https://sets-cricut.com/setup/ But, due to several reasons, you may not get the results as expected. TurboTax Canada is the number #1 tax preparation software in Canada as it makes complicated tax season a breeze. https://tu-t...ensecode.com The software comprises of different features and tools that help in the automatic preparation and filing of tax.
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Anonymous user #2

109 days ago
Score 0+
Microsoft 365 has all the familiar Office apps and more in one place.  https://micoff365setup.com  Work, learn, collaborate, connect, and create with Microsoft 365. Microsoft Office has numerous projects like MS Word, Excel, Outlook, and so forth.   https://micro365set.com/setup   In the wake of finishing the downloading procedure of MS Office,  experience the means given beneath and download it on your gadget.Aka.ms/phonelinkqrc is used to link an Android device and a Windows PC. This Microsoft feature can only be between Android and Windows devices. Using the   https://akamsphonelinkqrc.com  feature, one can link their smartphone and PC and operate their phone functions on the computer itself.
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Anonymous user #2

109 days ago
Score 0+
ij.start.canon helps to set up canon printer. It’s the online support platform to download and install canon printer drivers, firmware, and software. https://canijnon.ijcans.com To get started with ij.start.canon setup, you can select wireless, wired, or USB connection method. https://set-...ut.com/setup The app Cricut Design Space install is very easy to use, it doesn't have any complicated menus or settings. To set up Microsoft 365 for the first time, https://micros365setup.com visit the Microsoft 365 Setup page and follow the instructions on the screen.
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Anonymous user #2

109 days ago
Score 0+
Go to https://diy-...ignspace.com in your browser. Download and install Design Space for Desktop. Follow the on-screen instructions to sign in or create your Cricut ID, and set up your new machine.Log into https://spac...t-design.com and get access to the vast range of existing design possibilities for a craft project. From a craft maker to an art lover, a skilled crafter, to just a beginner, anyone can benefit from Cricut’s gallery of countless designs. You only need to own a Cricut machine, and the next moment you are the maker of the innovative projects that lets you get to the core of satisfaction. https://micsoft365setup.com If you have a Microsoft 365 installed than you don't need to upgrade your office because you already have the most current version of Office and in near future.
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Anonymous user #2

109 days ago
Score 0+
Ij.start.cannon learn how to configure your Windows & Mac printer or scanner in an simple way. https://ijst-ar.rakcanij.com Also set up Wireless and Device Drivers for Mac , Windows and Linux for Canon Ij Start Setup Instructions.These printers must be operated wirelessly from pc as well as mobile phones. https://ij.starijcan.com So the installation of the drivers becomes of utmost importance. 123hpcom setup deskjet printer is used for home needs. https://hh-p123.krihp.com This Printer supports google Cloud Print Service. so that we can print wirelessly.
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Anonymous user #2

109 days ago
Score 0+
From cutting machines to crafting essentials, Cricut products make it easy to create just for fun, for friends & family, or even for a small business. https://cricut-design-space.co The tutorial will continue to walk you through your first project. Everything that you need to make your first project is included with every Cricut Setup. This makes https://cric...gn-space.org super easy to do! It also makes it simple to learn all about your new machine.Get started with your new printer by downloading the software. https://123p.krihp.com we Support you for 123 hp com Setup Network Printer Connection which can be done by either USB or Wireless Connection.
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